Beyond the financial gains that might prompt an athlete to use performance enhancing drugs, there is the prestige and social status that comes with a podium finish among the sport’s tight community of elite runners. “People dope because they want to cement their position in the tribe,” said Mark Johnson, author of “Spitting in the Soup: Inside the Dirty Game of Doping in Sports.”The early rounds of drug testing in ultramarathons have begun to snare cheaters.
Unlike many American ultramarathons, the Marathon des Sables takes place as a series of five competitive stages over roughly five days. (There is also a sixth, noncompetitive stage that benefits charity.) The race organizers provide rationed water at checkpoints throughout each stage. The daily stages can take anywhere from two to 12 hours to complete, with one notable exception. The fourth day is the longest, and can take runners from eight hours to 35 hours to finish.
How do you train to run across the United States? You need to run. A lot. In the month preceding the start of his transcontinental run, Kostelnick logged over 900 miles. During the workweek, he would run at least 30 daily miles, split between a morning and an evening run.
Muck Rack makes it simple to find people, tweets, or articles that mention any name, keyword, company, hashtag etc. We've compiled this guide to help you make the most of your search.
Selecting a term
Start searching tweets, articles from media outlets, articles mentioned in tweets, journalists'
names, titles and bios with some suggested searches:
Companies or Topics (e.g. iPhone, Microsoft)
Phrases (e.g. "cloud computing") — use quotes to keep the terms together
Twitter handles (e.g. @username) — returns those who have mentioned or replied to
Names (e.g. "David Pogue")
Hashtags (e.g. #sxsw, #london2012)
Bio details (e.g. vegan, Olympics, father)
Muck Rack's Advanced Search allows for many boolean operators.
Find results that mention multiple specified terms, use AND or
+. For example, ensure each result contains both Elon Musk and Mark Zuckerberg by
searching Musk AND Zuckerberg or Musk + Zuckerberg.
Use the operators OR or , to broaden your search when you'd like either of
multiple terms to appear in results. (This is the default behavior of our search when no operators
are used). For example, results will contain either cake or cookie by searching cake OR cookie or cake,cookie
Use NOT or - to subtract results from your search. For
example, searching Disney will yield results about the Walt Disney Company as well as Walt Disney
World Resort. To exclude mentions of Disney World, search for Disney -World or Disney
When using one of these operators with a phrase, enclose it in quotation marks. For example, you can
find results about smartphones excluding Apple's iPhone 4S by searching smartphone -"iPhone
Exact case matching or punctuation
If you're searching for a brand name or keyword that relies on specific punctuation marks or capitalization, you can
find results that match your exact query by adding matchcase: before the keyword you're searching for, like matchcase:E*TRADE .
Use parentheses to separate multiple
boolean phrases. For example, to find journalists talking about having fun in Disney World or
Disneyland, search for ("disney world" OR disneyland) AND fun.
An asterisk can be used to search for any variation of a root word truncated by the asterisk. For example, searching for admin* will return results for administrator, administration, administer, administered, etc.
A near operator is an AND operator where you can control the distance between the words. You can vary the distance the near operation uses by adding a forward slash and number (between 0-99) such as strawberries NEAR/10 "whipped cream", which means the strawberries must exist within 10 words of "whipped cream".