Embarking on checkpoint-inhibitor immunotherapy for cancer is a bit like taking a single pull on the lever of a slot machine. For a relatively small risk — such drugs are generally safer than other types used to treat cancer — recipients can win a massive reward: years of disease-free survival. “My longest responder is from 2001, and she continues to do well long term,” says Antoni Ribas, an oncologist at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Many tumours produce abnormal proteins known as neoantigens that trigger the immune system to send T cells to hunt and kill the cancer. However, T cells also have fail-safe mechanisms, known as a checkpoints, that keep them from over-reacting and causing a damaging autoimmune response. For example, T cells have a checkpoint protein called PD-1 that causes them to call off their attack when it recognizes another protein called PD-L1, which is found on host cells.
Christopher Mason has a trick that he likes to break out at conferences. By harvesting DNA from swabs collected from a volunteer's phone, he and his colleagues can perform on-site ancestry analyses within an hour, and even recount details of a donor's day. “We were able to predict who had just eaten an orange, and who had eaten pork, from what was left on their phones,” says Mason, a computational biologist at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York City.
Muck Rack makes it simple to find people, tweets, or articles that mention any name, keyword, company, hashtag etc. We've compiled this guide to help you make the most of your search.
Selecting a term
Start searching tweets, articles from media outlets, articles mentioned in tweets, journalists'
names, titles and bios with some suggested searches:
Companies or Topics (e.g. iPhone, Microsoft)
Phrases (e.g. "cloud computing") — use quotes to keep the terms together
Twitter handles (e.g. @username) — returns those who have mentioned or replied to
Names (e.g. "David Pogue")
Hashtags (e.g. #sxsw, #london2012)
Bio details (e.g. vegan, Olympics, father)
Muck Rack's Advanced Search allows for many boolean operators.
Find results that mention multiple specified terms, use AND or
+. For example, ensure each result contains both Elon Musk and Mark Zuckerberg by
searching Musk AND Zuckerberg or Musk + Zuckerberg.
Use the operators OR or , to broaden your search when you'd like either of
multiple terms to appear in results. (This is the default behavior of our search when no operators
are used). For example, results will contain either cake or cookie by searching cake OR cookie or cake,cookie
Use NOT or - to subtract results from your search. For
example, searching Disney will yield results about the Walt Disney Company as well as Walt Disney
World Resort. To exclude mentions of Disney World, search for Disney -World or Disney
When using one of these operators with a phrase, enclose it in quotation marks. For example, you can
find results about smartphones excluding Apple's iPhone 4S by searching smartphone -"iPhone
Exact case matching or punctuation
If you're searching for a brand name or keyword that relies on specific punctuation marks or capitalization, you can
find results that match your exact query by adding matchcase: before the keyword you're searching for, like matchcase:E*TRADE .
Use parentheses to separate multiple
boolean phrases. For example, to find journalists talking about having fun in Disney World or
Disneyland, search for ("disney world" OR disneyland) AND fun.
An asterisk can be used to search for any variation of a root word truncated by the asterisk. For example, searching for admin* will return results for administrator, administration, administer, administered, etc.
A near operator is an AND operator where you can control the distance between the words. You can vary the distance the near operation uses by adding a forward slash and number (between 0-99) such as strawberries NEAR/10 "whipped cream", which means the strawberries must exist within 10 words of "whipped cream".