In order to increase scientific rigor and reproducibility, Drs. Collins (Director, NIH) and Clayton (Director, Office of Research on Women’s Health) spearheaded an effort to require preclinical scientists to consider sex differences in their research . A similar policy addressing the inclusion of women in clinical research has been in effect since 1993 .
Stress and prefrontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking; however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation that attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors.